August 30, 2013

Peanut Pineapple Coconut Butter-Bean Stew

Clean Out the Veggie Drawer and Cook

I don't know about you, but I have to clean out my veggie drawer the night before the Farmer's Market otherwise what would I buy?  Tonight I had several veggies that were getting tired, so I made a stew.  Not just any ordinary stew.  I made a peanut pineapple coconut savory stew with butter beans and served it over brown rice. 

Here is what I did:

Heat a skillet with a spicy oil, I used hot pepper sesame oil and wok oil which is garlicky.

Sautee a creamy bean in the oil, I used one can of butter beans.

Season the beans, I used Spike Original (my favorite - I use it in my scrambled eggs)

While the beans are getting married to the seasoning, heat a saucepan (deep cooking pan, or a large pot/dutch oven) and pour in two cans of coconut milk, one can of crushed pineapple with the juice, half a jar or about 1 cup of creamy or chunky peanut butter, a glug or tablespoon of rice vinegar.

Back to the skillet, when the beans are coated with the oil and seasoning and you taste one and think it's delicious, add them to the stew which at this point is just soup.

Add more oil to the skillet if necessary and saute chopped carrots, shallots, ginger, and zucchini, or whatever you have on hand and would like in the stew.

When the carrots are just beginning to get soft and the shallots are transparent, add them to the stew.

For that deep, savory umami taste, add tamari or soy sauce, and fish sauce.  Sprinkle the fish sauce, barely a tablespoon.  Glug the tamari, maybe two tablespoons.

Add more peanut butter if you like that flavor.  I do and I did add more.  At this point you could add a curry paste - I almost did.  Maybe next time.  My favorite is the red Thai curry paste.

I pulled out two cups and pureed it with my immersion blender.  Pull it out to puree so that you maintain some of the veggies and beans whole.  Pour the puree back in and stir.  Do it again if you want your stew to be thicker.  Don't puree if you prefer the stew to remain thinner and more like a vegetable soup.

Simmering Peanut Pineapple Coconut Butter-Bean Stew

The very last addition was roughly chopped kale.

I simmered for another three minutes.

I poured it over a bowl of brown rice that I bake in the oven.

Fool Proof Brown Rice

If you don't yet bake your brown rice and want to try this recipe, let me know.  It's from Cook's Illustrated.  It truly has been perfect every time and I've been making it this way for about ten years.  

Oh, by the way, I turned on the ability for everyone to comment.  Sorry about that.  I'm such a novice, I didn't realize.  Please comment - I love all of your email and in-person comments.  It would be very cool to have more comments on the blog too, in addition to the followers who registered.  Now you don't have to register.

So, back to the recipe.  Does this appeal to you?  I love peanut butter, crushed pineapple and coconut milk with my chicken.  This worked out great with my leftover veggies.

I'm off the the Farmer's Market in the morning.  Let me know if you try this recipe.

To your good health and convivial pleasure.

August 17, 2013

Luminous LUNARia Farm

If you have been following my posts, you may remember my fascination back in early June with two new farmers at the Saturday Bellingham Farmer's Market, Shelli and Paula from LUNARia Farm & Gardens.

They have a knack for displaying their gorgeous fruit and veggies.  When I compliment them on their artistic display each of them attributes the talent to their partner.  They are charming and lovely and are farmers.  Go meet them.  Our farmers are our rock stars.  These two are rock stars with flare.

Also see my post about Paula and Shelli, New Farmers at the Saturday Market, June 18, 2013.

August 15, 2013

Slow Garlic and Cranberry Beans

What do you do when a colleague gives you fresh backyard garlic?

Sauté something.

I had a handfull of Cranberry Beans, also known as Borlotti Beans, from the Bellingham Farmers Market.

So I shelled them.

And I'm not sure that this was necessary, I blanched them.  I thought they might sauté up too quickly since they are fresh, so I blanched to kill any bacteria that might not get killed in a quick sauté.  "Sautéing is a form of dry-heat cooking that uses a very hot pan and a small amount of fat to cook the food very quickly. Like other dry-heat cooking methods, sautéing browns the food's surface as it cooks and develops complex flavors and aromas." (Alfaro).

I heated up a skillet, added extra virgin cold-pressed olive oil and tossed the beans in to sauté them. They appeared to lose their color at first, but the color reappeared once the skin relaxed and reconnected with the bean.

They did not cook up that quickly.  When I tested one for its tooth, or bite, it was hard.  So I added some leftover yogurt whey from the fridge and let them sit in the liquid to simmer for 30 minutes.

Yogurt Whey

Lynne Rossetto Kasper, host of The Splendid Table on NPR, talked recently about ideas for using the leftover whey from dripping yogurt.  I drip my yogurt to make it Greek-style and had been wondering if I could do something with the leftover whey.  My sister said she was looking for ideas too.  Do you drip your yogurt?  Save the whey in a jar in the fridge.  I keep the whey for as long as the yogurt lasts. 

The Art of Fermentation author, Sandor Katz says to drip yogurt, "You take a few layers of cheesecloth or any kind of clean cotton cloth and put the yogurt in it, then hang it, and you'll just have whey dripping out of that. You can make it a little bit thicker, or you can make it a lot thicker -- something like cream cheese or even a harder cheese than that -- all depending upon how long you leave it dripping."

You can add it to your pan to make sauces.  I didn't think I would actually use it very often, but so far it has not lasted as long as the yogurt itself.  I have been adding it to things like a skillet of chicken, to veggies, and now to my cranberry beans.

After 30 minutes the beans were soft and creamy.  I added the backyard garlic that I chopped rough (not even).
Garlic Rough Copped

During the last few minutes I added pepper and the garlic.

Then added the kale and some leftover ancient Einkorn wheat pasta.  I covered the skillet for my mom's magic amount of time, three minutes, to heat everything thoroughly.

Added a dollop of my dripped Greek-style yogurt.

Dished it up and sprinkled with grated parmesan cheese.  Gorgeous, because we eat with our eyes first; nutritious because beans are full of protein, kale and Einkorn wheat is full of minerals and vitamins; meat free if you're doing that and I often do these days; and satisfying.

Slow Garlic and Cranberry Beans ingredients

Cranberry Beans, fresh, local

Garlic - fresh, local, backyard if you can get it, rough chopped

Olive Oil for the skillet

Yogurt Whey, or stock or soup base of your choice to simmer the beans and make a light sauce

Kale or Veggie of your choice, chopped

Pasta or Rice if you would like a starch to combine with the bean protein, plus it's more filling

Parmasen Cheese

Vegan alternatives:  It's easy to make this vegan, use a vegetable base or stock for the simmer sauce, use a non-dairy cheese or skip the cheese.  Top with herbs or seeds or something that you love.

No measurements - this was just an after-work throw together what is on-hand and in the fridge, dinner.    It was a slow meal not because it took long to cook, it didn't.  It only took about 45 minutes.

Slow food is food that is the opposite of fast food - industrialized, globalized food that is processed and shipped a thousand miles to reach us.

Slow food is in our backyard, it's from our local farmers and it's whole food that is recognizable in it's original form.  Slow food is food that we cook or bake ourselves.

Be adventurous, have fun, eat well.


Alfaro, D., How To Saute - All About Sautéing: Dry Heat Cooking With Fat.  Retrieved from

Katz, S. The Art of Fermentation interview with Lynne Rossetto Kasper on The Splendid Table, NPR. Retrieved from

August 13, 2013

Italians Don't Eat Eggs For Breakfast

When I was in Italy I was told, "You want eggs for breakfast?  Try London."

My hostess in Florence explained to me that she serves,  "a poor Italian breakfast."  So does everybody in Italy, I found out.  

Espresso with hot milk and white sugar, biscuits (mine were senza glutine, gluten-free), butter and jam.  It's a perfect breakfast if, in my opinion, you've been out drinking the night before and didn't get much sleep.  That would be my preferred breakfast on those rare mornings.  

Italians don't eat eggs for breakfast and as our language instructor, Roberta says, Americans are "strange" to do so.

By the second week I had talked my hostess into hard-boiling eggs at night for my breakfast the next day.  She said yes.  

If you're a breakfast lover like I am, however, this was a sad and barely palatable improvement.  But hey, I was getting animal protein at least in the morning.  (my apologies to my numerous vegetarian friends)  

It is typical for Italians to only eat meat once a week. (Dinnella).  My hostess was typically Italian.

During the Renaissance, a doctor from Oxford, Andrew Boorde, wrote in his book in 1542 titled, Fyrst Boke of the Introduction of Knowledge that, "day laborers required three full meals to accommodate the demands of toil."  Within the next hundred years northwestern Europeans started eating boiled and poached eggs and bread with salt herring or curd cheese for breakfast. (Snodgrass, 1. 76)  

The breakfast message was somehow lost on the Italians.  But it wasn't always this way.


History states that ancient Romans ate peafowl eggs for breakfast.  Eggs for breakfast!

Eggs were Meat

The Catholic Church used to consider eggs meat and therefore during Lent and other holy days where meat was forbidden, eggs were also not eaten.  That added up to half the year without eating eggs at all, much less for breakfast.  Consequently they either hatched their eggs or saved them for Easter when they could eat meat again.  To save the egg without refrigeration, they dipped the egg in wax or liquid fat and then decorated it.  That's where we get decorated Easter eggs - I always wondered.  (Kiple, 500).

In Lieu of Eggs

The coffee, however, was excellent.  They make espresso in stovetop percolators and warm up milk in a separate cup or pot.  Milk, though, is only in morning coffee, never in afternoon or evening coffee.  Americans are strange to do that.  

A Good Use of Eggs in Coffee

Before electric percolators became common in the 1950s, Americans made coffee with an egg in its shell.  . . ."coffee is much clearer made with egg, as grounds clung to the shell and could be more easily separated from the liquid."   Even Fannie Farmer declared, "coffee made with an egg has a rich flavor, and thus that only dire poverty should prevent one from using this method." (Elias, 35).

But Why do We Eat Eggs for Breakfast and Italians Don't?

In the last couple hundred years Americans ate more and more eggs but I could only find conflicting information and no verification of why. Even the National Chicken Council who were kind enough to answer my emails, offered no verification of why we eat eggs for breakfast in this country.  

I read from an unverified source that in the mid-1800s the Boston Poultry Association got together with England and France to promote more poultry consumption.  So there you have it.  It may be that we eat eggs for breakfast because it was commercialized to us to do so.

However, in the 1800s through the early 1900s Americans still relied on backyard flocks, (National Chicken Council), which are today growing in popularity and becoming common.

So Italians don't eat eggs for breakfast but they sure know how to put out a breakfast.  

When I visited the University of Gastronomic Sciences, I treated myself to the fancy hotel they run on the campus.  The breakfast was equally luxurious; local yeast-free breads, cured hams, hand made biscuits, regional cheese, but I still only got a boiled egg.

. . . but it was a gorgeous pasture egg, bright orange and full of nutrition.  

The cappuccino was flawless.

I ate nearly the same thing on my last morning while catching up on reflection pages from my class in Florence and  preparing to train to the coast for my long-awaited holiday.  

I'm glad the Italians were willing to make eggs for the visiting American tourists.  I tried to practice the, "when in Rome" philosophy and just do everything like an Italian while I was there.  Giving up eggs for breakfast was rough.  If I ever live in Italy, I will have to get my own backyard chicken, or two.


Snodgrass, M.E. (2013).  World Food: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Social Influence from Hunter-Gatherers to the Age of Globalization.  Armonk, NY: Myron E. Sharpe, Inc.

Kiple, K.F., Conee Ornelas, K., (Eds.). (2009). The Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge, UK:  The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.

Wylie, D. (2001) Starving on a Full Stomach: Hunger and the Triumph of Cultural Racism in Modern South Africa. Charlottesville and London:  University Press of Virginia. 

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2003) Egg marketing: A guide for the production and sale of eggs. (Agricultural Services Bulletin 150) Rome, Italy: Author.

Teuteberg, H. J. (Ed.). (1992) European Food History A Research Review. Great Britain: Leicester University Press.

National Chicken Council.  Retrieved from

Elias, M.J. (2009) Food in the United States, 1890-1945.  Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC.

Dinnella, C. (2013, July). Food defined by times of the day.  Lecture of Sensory Taste Science, University of Florence. Florence, Italy.

August 12, 2013

Cinghiale: Wild Tuscan Boar

There is a bronze sculpture of a Wild Boar, Cinghiale in Italian, in the New Market Plaza, Piazza del Mercado Nuovo.  I walked passed it every day on my way to class.

The custom is to rub his nose for good luck.  His snout is buffed shiny from the rubbing.  If a boar is beautiful, the sculptor captured it.  Every tuft of fur or is it coarse bristled hair, his relaxed pose, his front hoof out in front as if he knows his image is being captured, his upper fangs hanging out past his lip. . . his long snout makes him canine-like.  I can’t help but fall in love with him.  I’m wondering if bacon from boar is good.  His ears invite my fingers to dig through his fur to massage where he can’t reach like I used to do for my floppy-eared Bernese Mt. Dog. 

 My hands want to massage his fat jowls.  

He’s probably eyeing me for dinner.  I find him cute.  He is perhaps not a significant work of art – but a significant symbol of the culture here.  He is strong, proud, good-looking, and probably delicious.

Tuscans have been eating wild boar since ancient times. They used dogs wearing armor to coax the pigs out of the forest.

The meat apparently tastes of the local chestnuts and acorns that the Cinghiale eat.  It is available fresh in Tuscany only during hunting season, October through January. You can book a trip with a Tuscan hunting lodge and join one of the many hunt clubs in the region who kill and share boar equally among the members.  

A typical preparation is to marinate the boar overnight to remove the bitter and gamy taste, especially an older animal, then grill slabs of the meat and slow cook them with herbs, spices, and vegetables. (Morais).

I found a recipe from Viktorija Todorovska of Oliva Cooking.  Viktorija is passionate about food and teaches people to cook and helps them to write recipes.  She has a cookbook about food in Puglia that appealed to me because my roots are from that region.  Also, she paired the cinghiale with pappardelle which are pasta ribbons similar to the soft silky long flat pasta that I ate in Ventimiglia. That looks so delicious.  Viktorija recommends a Tuscan or Umbrian red wine. (Todorovska). 

Photo credit: Pappardelle al Cinghiale. Oliva Cooking, Viktorija Todorovska.

But alas, I am not hunting in Tuscany, but standing at the base of the sculpture of the idol pig where carvings of other creatures of the forest . . .

and the water . . . 

and just like on the bridges, locks attached by lovers hoping that their love . . .

 will last forever.


Todorovska, V. Oliva Cooking. Retrieved from

August 11, 2013

My Gluten-Intolerant Happy Story of Wheat

If ever I feel like an outsider in my own culture, it's when I cannot eat wheat with others.  I am gluten-intolerant.  However, I ate wheat in Italy.  In this post I will attempt to begin to explain why.

None of the Italians in Italy were surprised that I could eat wheat there but not at home.  It must happen all the time.  Non-Italians visit Italy from their own homeland where they have been told they cannot eat wheat.  They go to Italy and eat the wheat and are fine.  I had heard of this happening to other people.  I prayed it would happen to me, but I was not planning on it.

I targeted one day of my trip to deviate from my gluten abstinence and selected our class visit to a bio-dynamic farm in the hills of Tuscany outside of Florence.  I knew that they grew ancient wheat there and were going to serve us a light lunch showcasing their grain.  I didn't, however, quite wait till the farm to try my Italian wheat.

I was motivated to take my first taste of wheat the night before at the cooking school, In Tavola.  It was our second of two classes and we learned to make pasta.  Perfect, traditional, pasta with eggs which you include if you're going to eat the pasta fresh.  When pasta is made to be dried and stored, it is not made with eggs.

Fresh Pasta with Eggs


Our chef-instructors were kind enough to cook up some gluten-free pasta for me, but they heated up tomato sauce from a can and tossed in some herbs and threw it on a plate.  Yuck.  I had never eaten a more bland spaghetti in my life.  And imagine sitting at a table of 18 where everyone is eating the lovely masterpieces above and you are eating the not-so-bad-looking but bland mish-mosh below.
I pushed the corkscrews to the side and plated a serving of our handmade pasta and ravioli.  It was smooth on the tongue with a gentle tooth. Al dente in Italian means to the tooth, or to the bite.  So when I say something has a gentle tooth or a toothsomeness, I am referring to the way it feels when I bite down.  When you were a child, did you ever bite into Silly Putty?  I did.  It's sort of like that.  Smooth  as your teeth are digging in and then a little final dull click through a thick ending.

That night was my first wheat pasta in over ten years.  And I won't confess how many years it's been since I bit into Silly Putty.

The wheat pasta made me feel nourished and satisfied by the time the second course arrived.  I fully expected to feel a twinge of regret the next day.  But, I did not.  Instead I felt strong, invigorated and curious to eat more Italian wheat.

The next day we visited San Cristoforo Azienda Agricola farm,
 where they grow ancient wheat, called Senatore Cappelli, that has not been hybridized a gizillion times in the last 10,000+ years.  

One of the reasons it's beneficial to study in Italy is because they still use so many ancient farming practices.  We have the most, early information about Roman agriculture.  In ancient times, Italy was mostly agricultural and it was passed down and in many cases still in use. (Gras, 51)

The entrance to the farm.

Driveway that we walked up from the bus that parked down below.  These are Tuscan hills.

The owner of the farm, Franco, standing next to our professor, Gigi, explaining and translating to us the mission and philosophy of his farm.  He and his wife dropped out of their high tech careers in Milan to buy this land and start growing healthy food.  Their soil, composting, selecting seeds (Farmer 142-3), animals, and simple crop and fallow system (E.B. 30-1) are in harmony so that they can avoid pesticides and grow food that tastes good and is wholesome and nutritious.

Franco's farm was featured recently on American Public Radio's The Splendid Table in an episode broadcast September 7, 2013,

Compost Pile
Cute Cow

Giddy Goat

Happy Horse

Cow Horns

And as I have learned over the years and admire of many farmers, particularly Joel Salatin of Polyface Farms, all parts of the animal can be used on the farm.  Franco showed us his store of horns he uses to fertilize the soil.

And he grows more than just wheat.  He has orchards . . .

and an extended kitchen garden for his family.

Wheat stored.

Wheat Mill.

Franco holding the ancient wheat.

Wheat Lunch

Bruscetta, toast with pate, and I should have gone back to take close ups of the pasta because that is what I really fell in love with.  The toothsomeness of whole grain ancient pasta is like eating a whole meal in one bite.  If you've ever had a Guiness at the beginning of the evening so that you wouldn't have to eat dinner?  That's what this is like, so rich and fulfilling.

"Heritage grains are more delicious and more nutritious," says Eli Rogosa, founder of the Heritage Grain Conservancy, a Colrain, Mass., nonprofit working to save ancient wheat varieties from extinction. Modern wheat is bred for high yield, not for maximum nutrition, she says. ( Johannes, WSJ)

Wheat Dessert

If you are a berry-jam lover, this one is your dessert.  The ancient wheat crust was savory and crumbly with a soft center and slightly crisp outer edge.  The filling was thick with berries reduced as you would for jam and sweet like they were picked ripe from the vine, no added sugar, just all berry flavor.  You know that flavor.

Wheat Dessert No. 2

If you are a marmalade lover, this one is your dessert.  The crust was crunchy on the outside and soft with a solid tooth in the center.  The filling tingled the taste buds while the scent of fresh orange wafted up into the nostrils.  The thinly sliced oranges on top were chewy from baking, almost like candy, but it wasn't sweet - just deliciously orange.

The next day, nothing.  No adverse reaction to the gluten.  What's the deal?  Why is the wheat in Italy okay for me to eat?  Could it just be the organic biodynamic farming method?

That's all well and good, but we have amazing farmers in the United States too, biodynamic, organic,  Heirloom seeds, etc...  Our farmers, not the big ag, but the real farmers who still work the land and care about the soil and the animals and the plants - they didn't intend to grow wheat that someday a large percentage of the population would be intolerant of, allergic to or find toxic.  

So, what happened?

Hybridization happened.  Seed selection happened.  Let's start at the beginning.  

When the first hunter gatherers stopped following herds of animals all over the place and decided to plant some seeds and stay put for a while, the first farmers were born.  The first crop they planted was wheat.  The first wheat they planted was one they found in the wild called Einkorn (Triticum monococcum), in the Fertile Cresent that can still be found growing wild in Iraq (Wood 383) and Turkey.  For those first agrarians, domesticated Einkorn was being consumed along with emmer wheat, barely, bitter vetch, chick peas, flax, lentils and peas. (Snodgrass, 2. 574)  They even found evidence of Einkorn wheat in Ice Man's ember pouch. (Spindler, 225).

Two other wheats are also considered to be from that ancient beginning, Emmer (Triticum dicoccon) also known as faro.  

And Spelt (Triticum Spelta), thought to actually be the first cultivated wheat. (Guiliani, 3).  

My first loaf of Einkorn Wheat Bread.
Jovial Einkorn Wheat Flour
Dry Active Yeast
Sea Salt
The instructions were typical of any sandwich bread loaf, located on the side of the flour package.  In less than three hours I had wheat bread in my house.  I almost cried.  It was delicious.

Slice of ancient Einkorn wheat bread with butter.

Modern Wheat
Fast forward to the United States in the 19th century and wheat farms across the whole nation are struck with a disease called leaf rust or stripe rust.  It was a problem for decades.  "In 1926 all of the important varieties of wheat grown in the US were susceptible to one or more of the widely distributed forms of leaf rust." (USDA. 1927, 762).  It takes until the 1960s to breed resistance to this disease. (Singh, 1)

In addition to leaf rust, we were also trying to breed resistance to loose smut and just plain old hard, rainy weather that would cause long tall wheat to fall over and lose kernels into the soil.  (USDA 1927, 769).

Farmers being clever, survival-types and a little bit of American ingenuity combined together to save our wheat. And save it they did.  However, modern wheat does not completely resemble the ancient wheat and apparently the differences are what some of us are sensitive to.

The Wheat Belly author, Dr. William Davis, says that modern wheat is toxic.  Davis says that modern wheat causes all sorts of health problems common to us today and that we should not eat it.  He says it's okay to eat Einkorn and goes into detail about the number of chromosomes.  But I find I can eat more than just the Einkorn wheat.  I can also eat Franco's wheat from San Cristoforo.  In fact, I ate wheat for the second two weeks of my three weeks in Italy.

Others don't specify.  They say wheat is good, period.  "Wheat nurtures the heart and, as a cooling food and yin tonic, calms and focuses them and treats a wide range of stress and mental health symptoms.  It also supports the spleen, liver, and kidney meridians.  Whole wheat contains 12 B vitamins, vitamin E, protein, essential fatty acids, and important trace minerals such as zinc, iron, copper, manganese, magnesium, and phosphorous.  Like rye, wheat is good for the musculature.  . . .it balances vata and pitta." (Wood, 384).

I believe it.  I feel great lately.  And I think there is something to it, most of us love wheat and prefere it over other grains.  "In 1918, the U.S. Department of Agriculture issued a bulletin urging Americans to eat more rice to save wheat for export to America’s European allies and because it was nutritious.  [However] It did not work.  Rice consumption remained low even after the war." (Elias, 27).

So there you have it.  My gluten-intolerant story of wheat is that I have a happy ending.  I can eat ancient wheat of many varieties.  

At a recent holiday gathering with my family, I made pasta from a local wheat my sister found and has been using, White Sonora Wheat, "one of the oldest surviving wheat varieties anywhere in North America." (Slow Food USA).

My sister made a stollen from the Sonora White Wheat.  It was one of the best stollens any of us could remember.  And again, no adverse reaction for my gluten-intolerant gut.

I plan to keep exploring and making a list.

Let me know if you have a similar story.  I would love to hear about your experience.


Gras, N.S.B. (1925).  A History of Agriculture in Europe and America. New York: F.S. Crofts & Co., Publishers.

San Cristoforo Biodynamic Farm in Tuscany

Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2013. Web. 08 Aug. 2013. <>.

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Giuliani, A., Karagöz, A., Zencirci, N. (2006). Building the Market Chain: Emmer in Turkey: An ancient cereal maintained by mountain farmers.  Diversity for Livelihoods Programme of Bioversity International and the Global Facilitation Unit of Underutilized Species (GFU).

Unites States Department of Agriculture. (1927).  Yearbook of Agriculture 1926.  United States Government Printing Office, Washington, Author.

Singh, B., Bansal, U.K., Hare, R.A., Bariana, H.S. (2013). Genetic analysis of durable adult plant stripe rust resistance in durum wheat cultivars.  Austrailian Journal of Crop Science.  The University of Sydney PBI-Cobbity, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Australia.

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Manning, R. (2004). Against The Grain:  How Agriculture has Hijacked Civilization. New York: North Point Press.

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Spindler, K. (1994). The Man in the Ice. New York, NY: Crown Publishers, Inc.

Snodgrass, M.E. (2013).  World Food: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Social Influence from Hunter-Gatherers to the Age of Globalization.  Armonk, NY: Myron E. Sharpe, Inc.

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